The ancient Greeks were the first to systematize the thinking and reasoning processes, as is evidenced by the fact that the word “philosophy” is itself of Greek origin ( “love” “wisdom”). Specifically, it was Aristotle who, in his “Prior Analytics” formulated the system of deductive logic, whereby if one acknowledges that (1) all men are mortal, and (2) Socrates is a man, then one must therefore acknowledge that (3) Socrates is mortal. Logic played an important part in Greek science” though, it should be mentioned, the Greeks believed that reasoning was the only way of making discoveries about the world; the modern scientific method, involving experimentation, was way in the future.Get more information here. http://jillianreadsbooks2.wordpress.com/2011/09/03/book-56-the-symposium-by-plato/
The Romans learned much from the Greeks, but contributed little of their own; and with the fall of the Roman Empire in the fifth century, the works of the Greek philosophers was largely forgotten in Europe, though the Arabs translated and preserved these, and crusaders soon learned about them.
With the onset of the Renaissance in the 1400s and 1500s came the rediscovery of classical works” and European science came into its own, overturning many ancient ideas about the universe. The “Age of Science” continues till today.